Right here’s a take a look at Kashmir, a area within the Himalayan and Karakoram mountain ranges. India, Pakistan and China all declare partial or full possession of Kashmir.
Kashmir is an 86,000-square mile area within the northern a part of the Indian subcontinent.
India and Pakistan have been combating over Kashmir since each international locations gained their independence in 1947.
Between 1989 and 2008, greater than 47,000 folks had been killed in separatist violence, based on the Indian authorities. Some human rights teams and nongovernmental organizations say the loss of life toll is greater.
Tons of are nonetheless killed yearly in separatist violence, based on human rights teams.
The Line of Management separates Indian and Pakistani-controlled elements of Kashmir.
India-controlled: One state, known as Jammu and Kashmir, makes up the southern and japanese parts of the area. Srinagar is the summer time capital metropolis. Jammu (metropolis) is the winter capital.
Pakistan-controlled: Three areas known as Azad Kashmir and Gilgit-Baltistan make up the northern and western parts of the area. The capital of Azad Kashmir is Muzaffarabad.
China-controlled: One space known as Aksai Chin within the northernmost a part of the area.
Kashmir: India and Pakistan’s bitter dispute
1947 – India and Pakistan achieve independence from Nice Britain. Kashmir initially decides to stay unbiased, selecting to not grow to be part of both Pakistan or India. After militants from Pakistan invade, the Maharaja of Kashmir indicators a letter acceding to India. Pakistan doesn’t acknowledge the letter as a authorized doc, sparking conflict.
January 1, 1949 – India and Pakistan comply with withdraw all troops behind a mutually agreed ceasefire line, later often known as the Line of Management.
1965 – India and Pakistan go to conflict once more over Kashmir.
1989 – Islamic militants start an rebellion in Indian-controlled Kashmir.
1999 – India and Pakistan battle a restricted border battle in Kashmir, after armed invaders cross the Line of Management within the city of Kargil.
July 25, 2000 – Hizbul Mujahedeen, a pro-Pakistan Kashmiri militant group, declares a unilateral ceasefire for 3 months in Jammu and Kashmir.
August 8, 2000 – Hizbul Mujahedeen calls off its ceasefire.
Could 23, 2001 – India ends a six-month ceasefire whereas additionally inviting Pakistani navy ruler, Normal Pervez Musharraf, to peace talks geared toward ending 5 a long time of hostilities between the 2 international locations.
July 14-16, 2001 – Musharraf and Indian Prime Minister Atal Behari Vajpayee meet in Agra, India, for a three-day summit. The talks fail to supply a joint assertion on Kashmir.
December 20, 2001 – The Indian military deploys troops on its border with Pakistan within the northern states of Kashmir and Punjab after an assault by militants on the Indian Parliament constructing. Pakistani troops additionally buildup throughout the frontier.
January 12, 2002 – Musharraf declares a ban on two Kashmiri militant teams.
October 2002 – 4 rounds of polls to decide on a brand new state administration conclude in Indian-controlled Kashmir. About 300-500 persons are killed throughout the election marketing campaign.
November 2003 – India agrees to a Pakistani provide of a ceasefire alongside their borders within the disputed area of Kashmir. The ceasefire goes into impact November 26 and is the primary ceasefire in 14 years.
January 4, 2004 – Vajpayee meets with Musharraf in Islamabad. It’s their first direct contact in two years.
March 28, 2008 – Human rights staff discover practically 1,000 unmarked graves close to the Line of Management. Tons of of protestors in Indian Kashmir later conflict with police, demanding an investigation into the graves.
October 21, 2008 – India and Pakistan open a commerce route for the primary time in six a long time on the Line of Management. Fruit, clothes and spices are among the many objects being transported.
January 14, 2011 – India’s dwelling secretary declares that India will lower its safety forces in Kashmir over the following 12 months.
February 10, 2011 – Pakistan and India comply with resume peace talks that halted after the 2008 Mumbai terror assaults.
July 27, 2011 – Pakistani International Minister Hina Rabbani Khar meets with Indian International Minister S.M. Krishna in New Delhi to debate methods to enhance journey and commerce throughout Kashmir.
February 2015 – The Hindu Bharatiya Janata Occasion (BJP) and the Individuals’s Democratic Occasion (PDP,) a regional celebration backed by the Muslim majority, announce the formation of a coalition authorities in Indian-controlled Kashmir. This follows 5 rounds of elections in 2014 with no clear winner and is the primary time that the BJP will likely be a part of the governing coalition within the state meeting. The coalition authorities is sworn in on March 1, 2015.
January 2016 – The loss of life of the chief minister of the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir, Mufti Mohammad Sayeed, creates tumult throughout the coalition authorities. The presumptive successor is Mehbooba Mufti, Sayeed’s daughter. She declines to take the oath of workplace, nonetheless, as relations fray between the PDP and the BJP. With the power-sharing alliance in disaster, Governor’s rule is imposed in accordance with the Structure of Jammu and Kashmir.
April 4, 2016 – Mehbooba Mufti is sworn in as the primary feminine chief minister of Jammu and Kashmir.
September 18, 2016 – Armed militants enter an Indian military base within the city of Uri and kill 18 troopers. A number of hours later, 4 militants are killed in a shootout with the Indian military.
September 29, 2016 – Two Pakistani troopers are killed after clashes with Indian troops on the border.
October 2016 – India relocates greater than 10,000 folks from across the disputed border space as tensions proceed to escalate with Pakistan.
November 15, 2016 – Raja Farooq Haider, the prime minister of Azad Jammu and Kashmir, says the federal government has moved 8,000 folks to safer locations within the wake of ongoing “Indian shelling,” and plans are being made to maneuver others. In response, Indian protection spokesman Lt. Col. Manish Mehta tells CNN, “We all the time reply appropriately and successfully at any time when there’s a ceasefire violation from the Pakistan facet.”
August 1, 2017 – Violent protests erupt over the killing of Abu Dujana, the Pakistani commander of the phobia group, Lashkar-e-Taiba.
February 14, 2019 – Not less than 40 are killed when a bomb explodes close to a convoy of Indian paramilitary personnel.
February 26, 2019 – Pakistan declares it’ll retaliate “on the time and place of its selecting” after India conducts airstrikes on an alleged terrorist coaching camp inside Pakistan territory, within the first such incursion by Indian air pressure planes for the reason that conflict in 1971.
February 27, 2019 – Pakistan says its air pressure shot down two Indian fighter jets over Kashmir. India confirms the lack of one aircraft and says it shot down a Pakistani jet because it responded to the incident.
March 1, 2019 – Pakistan declares that it’ll launch an Indian pilot who was being held in custody.
August 5, 2019 – Tensions between India and Pakistan improve after Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi declares that India will revoke a constitutional provision giving the state of Jammu and Kashmir autonomy to set its personal legal guidelines. Within the wake of the announcement, widespread communications blackouts are reported within the Muslim majority area.
August 6, 2019 – India’s parliament votes to approve the standing change for the state of Jammu and Kashmir. The reorganization invoice will increase New Delhi’s authority over the area, altering it from an autonomous state right into a union territory. Pakistan responds that the change is against the law. “If the world doesn’t act now, if the so-called developed world doesn’t uphold its personal legal guidelines, then issues will go to a spot that can injury the entire world,” says Imran Khan, prime minister of Pakistan.
August 7, 2019 – Pakistan declares that diplomatic relations and bilateral commerce with India are being suspended.
August 8, 2019 – Modi delivers a televised handle in which he claims that revoking Kashmir’s autonomous standing will promote stability, cut back corruption and enhance the financial system. Pakistan’s international minister says the nation will stay vigilant however no navy choices are being thought-about. The United Nations points an announcement calling on each international locations to resolve the problem peacefully whereas respecting human rights within the area.
October 31, 2019 – Jammu and Kashmir formally lose statehood standing and grow to be two union territories.